The HIL engine is a Java standard-based engine that runs Mocks. A Mock is a jar file containing some Java classes that simulate natives for the Simulator. Mocks allow applications to be run unchanged in the Virtual Device while still appearing to interact with native code.

Functional Description

As with SNI, HIL is responsible for finding the method to execute as a replacement for the native Java method that the MicroEJ Simulator tries to run. Following the SNI specification philosophy, the matching algorithm uses a naming convention. When a native method is called in the MicroEJ Simulator, it requests that the HIL engine execute it. The corresponding Mock executes the method and provides the result back to the MicroEJ Simulator.

The MicroEJ Simulator Executes a Native Java Method ``foo()``.

The MicroEJ Simulator Executes a Native Java Method foo().


package example;


 * Abstract class providing a native method to access sensor value.
 * This method will be executed out of virtual machine.
public abstract class Sensor {

    public static final int ERROR = -1;

    public int getValue() throws IOException {
        int sensorID = getSensorID();
        int value = getSensorValue(sensorID);
        if (value == ERROR) {
            throw new IOException("Unsupported sensor");
        return value;

    protected abstract int getSensorID();

    public static native int getSensorValue(int sensorID);

class Potentiometer extends Sensor {

    protected int getSensorID() {
        return Constants.POTENTIOMETER_ID; // POTENTIOMETER_ID is a static final

To implement the native method getSensorValue(int sensorID), you need to create a MicroEJ mock project containing the same Sensor class on the same example package.

To create a new MicroEJ mock project:

Follow the steps described in SDK 6 User Guide - Create a Project depending on your IDE.

The following code is the required Sensor class of the created Mock project:

package example;

import java.util.Random;

 * Java standard class included in a Mock jar file.
 * It implements the native method using a Java method.
public class Sensor {

     * Constants
    private static final int SENSOR_ERROR = -1;
    private static final int POTENTIOMETER_ID = 3;

    private static final Random RANDOM = new Random();

     * Implementation of native method "getSensorValue()"
     * @param sensorID Sensor ID
     * @return Simulated sensor value
    public static int getSensorValue(int sensorID) {
        if( sensorID == POTENTIOMETER_ID ) {
            // For the simulation, Mock returns a random value
            return RANDOM.nextInt();
        return SENSOR_ERROR;



The visibility of the native method implemented in the mock must be public regardless of the visibility of the native method in the application. Otherwise the following exception is raised: java.lang.UnsatisfiedLinkError: No such method in remote class.

Mocks Design Support


The MicroEJ Simulator interface is defined by static methods on the Java class com.is2t.hil.NativeInterface.

Array Type Arguments

Both [SNI] and HIL allow arguments that are arrays of base types. By default the contents of an array are NOT sent over to the Mock. An “empty copy” is sent by the HIL engine, and the contents of the array must be explicitly fetched by the Mock. The array within the Mock can be modified using a regular assignment. Then to apply these changes in the MicroEJ Simulator, the modifications must be flushed back. There are two methods provided to support fetch and flush between the MicroEJ Simulator and the HIL:

  • refreshContent: initializes the array argument from the contents of its MicroEJ Simulator counterpart.
  • flushContent: propagates (to the MicroEJ Simulator) the contents of the array that is used within the HIL engine.
An Array and Its Counterpart in the HIL Engine.

An Array and Its Counterpart in the HIL Engine.

Below is a typical usage.

public static void foo(char[] chars, int offset, int length){
        NativeInterface ni = HIL.getInstance();
        //inside the Mock
        ni.refreshContent(chars, offset, length);
        chars[offset] = 'A';
        ni.flushContent(chars, offset, 1);

Blocking Native Methods

Some native methods block until an event has arrived [SNI]. Such behavior is implemented in native using the following three functions:

  • int32_t SNI_suspendCurrentJavaThread(int64_t timeout)
  • int32_t SNI_getCurrentJavaThreadID(void)
  • int32_t SNI_resumeJavaThread(int32_t id)

This behavior is implemented in a Mock using the following methods on a lock object:

  • Object.wait(long timeout): Causes the current thread to wait until another thread invokes the notify() method or the notifyAll() method for this object.
  • Object.notifyAll(): Wakes up all the threads that are waiting on this object’s monitor.
  • NativeInterface.notifySuspendStart(): Notifies the Simulator that the current native is suspended so it can schedule a thread with a lower priority.
  • NativeInterface.notifySuspendEnd(): Notifies the Simulator that the current native is no more suspended. Lower priority threads in the Simulator will not be scheduled anymore.
public static byte[] data = new byte[BUFFER_SIZE];
public static int dataLength = 0;
private static Object lock = new Object();

     // Mock native method
     public static void waitForData() {
             NativeInterface ni = HIL.getInstance();
             // inside the Mock
             // wait until the data is received
             synchronized (lock) {
                     while (dataLength == 0) {
                             try {
                                     lock.wait(); // equivalent to lock.wait(0)
                             } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                                     // Use the error code specific to your library
                                     throw new NativeException(-1, "InterruptedException", e);
                             } finally {

// Mock data reader thread
public static void notifyDataReception() {
      synchronized (lock) {
            dataLength = readFromInputStream(data);

Resource Management

In Java, every class can play the role of a small read-only file system root: The stored files are called “Java resources” and are accessible using a path as a String.

The MicroEJ Simulator interface allows the retrieval of any resource from the original Java world, using the getResourceContent method.

public static void bar(byte[] path, int offset, int length) {
      NativeInterface ni = HIL.getInstance();
      ni.refreshContent(path, offset, length);
      String pathStr = new String(path, offset, length);
      byte[] data = ni.getResourceContent(pathStr);

Synchronous Terminations

To terminate the whole simulation (MicroEJ Simulator and HIL), use the stop() method.

public static void windowClosed() {


  • Copy the HILEngine.jar from the VEE Port into a project folder, for example in libs.

  • Add a dependency to this local library in the build.gradle.kts file:



  • Create a J2SE Library project,
  • In the build.gradle.kts file, change the com.microej.gradle.j2se-library plugin to com.microej.gradle.mock.
  • Build and publish the Mock by executing the Gradle publish task.

Once the module is built, the mock can be installed in a VEE Port in one of the two ways:

  • by adding the mock module as a regular VEE Port module dependency (if your VEE Port configuration project contains a module.ivy file),
  • or by manually copying the JAR file [mock_project]/build/libs/[mock_name]-[mock_version].jar to the VEE Port configuration mock dropins folder dropins/mocks/dropins/.


Once installed, a Mock is used automatically by the Simulator when the MicroEJ Application calls a native method which is implemented into the Mock.


JavaFX is an open-source library for creating modern Java user interfaces that is highly portable. It can be used to quickly create graphical Mocks for your VEE Port.

  • If your SDK is running on JDK 8, the Oracle JDK contains JavaFX, so this version allows you to use it right now in your project.
  • If your SDK is running on JDK 11, JavaFX must be added as an additional dependency to your Mock and VEE Port project. For that, MicroEJ Corp. provides a ready-to-use packaged module for all supported OS versions.
<dependency org="com.microej.tool" name="javafx" rev="1.2.0" />

The Module serves two purposes, depending on whether it is added to a Mock or a VEE Port project:

  • In a Mock project, JavaFX is added as a compile-time dependency, its content is not included in the Mock.
  • If your VEE Port contains at least one Mock, JavaFX must be added to the VEE Port project in order to embed its content in the VEE Port.